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Review | Special issue | Vol 76, No. 1, 2008, pp.73-97
Published online, 15th May, 2008
DOI: 10.3987/REV-08-SR(N)2
Heteoropoly Acids: Green Chemical Catalysts in Organic Synthesis

Tadaharu Ueda* and Hiyoshizo Kotsuki*

*Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520, Japan

Abstract

Heteropoly acids have been used in various fields of organic synthesis mainly due to their characteristic features: they are cost-effective reagents that are strongly acidic, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient. This review addresses the significant advances in organic synthesis using heteropoly acids or their salts mainly from papers published in this century. These include (1) Friedel-Crafts reactions, (2) Prins reactions, (3) Mannich reactions, (4) Biginelli reactions, (5) other types of condensation, (6) protection and deprotection, and (7) miscellaneous reactions such as epoxide ring-opening reactions.