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Review | Regular issue | Vol 53, No. 2, 2000, pp.453-474
Published online, 1st January, 1970
DOI: 10.3987/REV-99-526
Anti HIV-1 Active Calophyllum Coumarins: Distribution, Chemistry, and Activity

Tsutomu Ishikawa*

*Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan

Abstract

Some dipyranocoumarins isolated from Calophyllum genus, Guttiferae (Clusiaceae), show anti HIV-1 activity. The HIV-1 active Calophyllum coumarins such as (+)-calanolide A [(+)-1] and (+)-inophyllum B [(+)-13] have a (2R,3S,4S)-2,3-dimethyl-4-chromanol ring as common structural requirements, whereas closely related coumarins were significantly less active or totally inactive. Thus, the stereochemistry of the chromanol ring in Calophyllum coumarins could be responsible for anti HIV-1 activity. Calanolide A [(+)-1] has currently been included in clinical trials. This review describes the distribution, chemistry, and the anti HIV-1 activity of Calophyllum coumarins.